viernes, 16 de enero de 2009

La aportacion de Fornet Betancoult al Pensamiento Latinoamericano

Fornet Betancourt ha aportado algunos elementos novedosos al pensamiento latinoamericano, entre ellos un discurso plural en el que se aboga por el reconocimiento y el respecto de las culturas latinoamericanas. Este discurso plural supone la existencia de culturas y no de "una cultura". Esta postura constituye un rompimiento con la categoría de “la cultura latinoamericana” y con su tendencia homogeneizante y unificadora. Concomitantemente con el rompimiento de la categoría de “la cultura latinoamericana”, también rompe con la idea de una cultura estática, cerrada e irenica. En ese sentido, para Fornet las culturas constituyen reservas que sirven de punto de apoyo para la persona, por tanto, no son entidades inmovibles y cerradas, sino que ellas están abiertas al cambio y poseen conflictos internos que dan lugar a la dialéctica opresión-liberación. Las culturas hacen al individuo y el individuo las hace a ella. Esta dialéctica entre cultura-individuo, prevé la libertad del los sujetos, por lo que no constituye un mero determinismo.
Como hay culturas, no hay una sola identidad, sino que hay identidades en América Latina. Fornet rompió con la tendencia reduccionista que condujo a los pensadores latinoamericanos a homogeneizar las culturas en la búsqueda de una identidad cultural de América Latina, según la cual tenemos un origen, una raza, una lengua y una religión. Otro de los elementos aportados por Fornet al pensamiento latinoamericano es el dialogo intercultural el cual presupone la existencia de una pluralidad cultural y la nueva concepción de la cultura que prevee la dialéctica determinación-libertad y opresión-liberación. Este dialogo intercultural constituye una alternativa diferente a la que optaron los pensadores latinoamericanos: el modelo civilizador. Este se concebía como la única alternativa viable para superar la barbarie en la que se encontraba sumergida América Latina, y conducirla hacia el progreso. Así la civilización se veía como una nueva etapa que superaba la barbarie y el colonialismo precedente. No obstante, según el autor el modelo civilizador constituye uno de los problemas centrales de nuestra época.
La postura intercultural rompe con el dualismo que desde sus inicios había acompañado al pensamiento latinoamericano. En ese sentido se hablaba de colonizados-colonizadores, civilización-barbarie, oprimidos-opresores, etc. La filosofía intercultural prevé la existencia de muchas posturas que interactúan, en ese mismo orden no habla de filosofía, sino de filosofías o perspectivas filosóficas. Por ultimo quiero mencionar la relectura que hace la postura intercultural del pensamiento latinoamericano a fin de transformarlo para que se adapte al contexto intercultural actual.

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